1899 - 1902



Anglo Boer War
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Queen Victoria was pleased to confer the decoration of the Victoria Cross on the following officers, non-commissioned officers, and men, whose claims were submitted to her Majesty's  approval, for their conspicuous bravery in South Africa, as stated against their names.

The names are arranged according to the dates on which  they were performed the deeds that earned the distinction. An asterisk denotes the V. C. 's conferred by King Edward VII.

Captain Matthew Fontaine Kaury Meikiejohn of the Gordon Highlanders.-At the battle of Elandslaagte, on October 21, 1899, after the main Boer position had been captured, some men of the Gordon Highlanders, when about to assault a kopje in advance, were exposed to a heavy cross-fire, and, having lost their leaders, commenced to waver. Seeing this, Captain Meiklejohn rushed to the front and called on the Gordons to follow him. By his conspicuous bravery and fearless example, he rallied the men and led them against the enemy's position, where he fell, desperately wounded in four places.

Captains C. H. Mullins and B. Johnstone, Imperial Light Horse.-On the 21 st October 1899, at Elandslaagte, at a most critical moment, the advance being momentarily checked by a very severe fire at point-blank range, these two officers very gallantly rushed forward under this heavy fire and rallied the men, thus enabling the flanking movement which decided the day to be carried out. On this occasion Captain Mullins was wounded.

Sergeant-Major (now Quartermaster and Hon. Lieutenant) William Robertson of the Gordon Highlanders.-At the battle of Elandslaagte, on October 21, 1899, during the final  advance on the enemy's position, Sgt. - Major Robertson led each successive rush, exposing himself fearlessly to the enemy's artillery and rifle fire to encourage the men. After the main position had been captured, he led a small  party to seize the Boer camp. Though exposed to a deadly cross-fire from the enemy's rifles, he gallantly held on to the position captured, and continued to encourage the men until he was dangerously wounded in two places.

Second Lieutenant John Norwood , 5th Dragoon Guards.-On October 30, 1899, Second Lieutenant Norwood went out from Ladysmith in charge of a small patrol of the ~th Dragoon Guards. They came under a heavy fire from the  enemy, who were posted on a ridge in great force. The patrol, which had arrived within about 6oo yards of the ridge, then retired at full speed. One man dropped, and Second Lieutenant Norwood galloped back about 300yards through heavy fire, dismounted, and picking up the fallen trooper, carried him out of fire on  his back, at the same time leading his horse with one hand. The enemy kept up an incessant fire during the whole time that Second Lieutenant Norwood was carrying the man until he was quite out of range.

*Lieutenant H. E. K. Douglas, Royal Army Medical Corps.-On December II, 1899, during the action at Majesfontein, Lieutenant Douglas showed great gallantry and devotion under a very severe fire in advancing in the open and attending to Captain Gordon, Gordon Highlanders, who was wounded, arid also attending to Major Robinson and other wounded men under a fearful fire. Many similar acts of devotion and gallantry were performed by Lieutenant Douglas on the same day.

Corporal J. Shaul , the Highland Light Infantry.-On December 11 1899, during the battle of Majesfontein, Corporal Shaul was observed (not only by the officers of his own battalion but by several officers  of other regiments) to perform several specific acts of bravery. Corporal Shaul was in charge of stretcher-bearers; but at one period of the battle he was seen encouraging men to advance across the open. He was most conspicuous  during the day in dressing men's wounds, and in one case he came, under a heavy fire, to a man who was lying wounded in the back, and, with the utmost coolness and deliberation, sat down beside the wounded man and proceeded to  dress his wound. Having done this, he got up and went quietly to another part of the field. This act of gallantry was performed under a continuous and heavy fire as coolly and quietly as if there had been no enemy near.

Captain W. N. Congreve , the Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own).-At Colenso, on December 15, 1899, the detachments serving the guns of the 14th and 66th Batteries, Royal Field Artillery, had all been  either killed, wounded, or driven from their guns by infantry fire at close range, and the guns were deserted. About 500 yards behind the guns was a donga in which some of the few horses and drivers left alive were sheltered. The  intervening space was swept with shell and rifle fire.Captain Congreve,  Rifle Brigade, who was in the donga, assisted to hook a team into a limber, went out, and assisted to limber up a gun. Being wounded, he took shelter; but seeing Lieutenant Roberts fall, badly wounded, he went out again and brought  him in. Captain Congreve was shot through the leg, through the toe of his boot, grazed on the elbow and the shoulder, and his horse shot in three places.

Lieutenant the Hon. F. H. S. Roberts (since deceased), the King's Royal Rifle Corps. -Lieutenant Roberts assisted Captain Congreve. He was wounded in three places.

Corporal G. B. Nurse , 66th Battery, Royal Field Artillery.-Corporal Nurse also assisted

Captain H. L. Reed , 7th Battery, Royal Field Artillery.-Captain Reed, who had heard of the difficulty, shortly  afterwards brought down three teams from his battery to see if he could be of any use. He was wounded, as were five of the thirteen men who rode with him; one was killed; and thirteen out of twenty-one horses were killed before he  got half-way to the guns, and he was obliged to retire.

Major William Babtie , G.M.G., of the Royal Army Medical Corps.-In the engagement the wounded of the 14th and 66th  Batteries, Royal Field Artillery, were lying in an advanced donga close in the rear of the guns without any medical officer to attend to them, and when a message was sent back asking for assistance, Major Babtie rode up under a  heavy rifle fire, his pony being hit three times. When he arrived at the donga, where the wounded were lying in sheltered corners, he attended to them all, going from place to place exposed to the heavy rifle fire which greeted any  one who showed himself. Late in the day Major Babtie went out with Captain Congreve to bring in Lieutenant Roberts, who was lying wounded on the veldt. This also was under a heavy fire.

Captain Charles FitzClarence , the Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment).-On the i4th October 1899, Captain FitzClarence went with his squadron of the Protectorate Regiment, consisting of only partially trained  men, who had never been in action, to the assistance of an armoured train which had gone out from Mafeking. The enemy were in greatly superior numbers, and the squadron was for a time surrounded, and it looked as if nothing could  save them from being shot down. Captain FitzClarence, however, by his personal coolness and courage, inspired the greatest confidence in his men, and by his bold and efficient handling of them, not only succeeded in relieving the  armoured train, but inflicted a heavy defeat on the Boers, who lost fifty killed and a large number wounded, his own losses being two killed and fifteen wounded. The moral effect of this blow had a very important bearing on  subsequent encounters with the Boers. On the 27th October 1899, Captain FitzClarence led his squadron from Mafeking across the open, and made a night attack with the bayonet oil one of tile enemy's trenches. A hand-to-hand fight  took place in the trench, while a heavy fire was concentrated on it from the rear. The enemy was driven out with heavy loss. Captain FitzClarence was the first man into the position, and accounted for four of the enemy with his  sword. The British lost six killed and nine wounded. Captain FitzCiarence was himself slightly wounded. With reference to these two actions, Major-General Baden-Powell states that, had this officer not shown an extraordinary spirit  and fearlessness, the attacks would have been failures, and we should have suffered heavy loss both in men and prestige. On the 26th December 1899, during the action at Game Tree, near Mafeking, Captain FitzClarence again  distinguished himself by his coolness and courage, and was again wounded (severely through both legs).

Sergeant H. R. Martineau , Protectorate Regiment.-On the 26th December 1899, during the fight at Game Tree, near  Mafeking, when the order to retire had been given, Sergeant Martineau stopped and picked up Corporal Le Camp, who had been struck down about ten yards from the Boer trenches, and half dragged, half carried him towards a bush about  150 yards from the trenches. In doing this Sergeant Martineau was wounded in the side, but paid no attention to it, and proceeded to staunch and bandage the wounds of his comrade, whom he afterwards assisted to retire. The firing  while they were retiring was very heavy, and Sergeant Martineanu was again wounded. When shot the second time he was absolutely exhausted from supporting his comrade, and sank down unable to proceed further. He received three  wounds, one of which necessitated the amputation of his arm near the shoulder.

Trooper H. B. Ramsden , Protectorate Regiment. -On the 26th December 1899, during the fight at Game Tree, near Mafeking,  after the order to retire was given, Trooper H. B. Ramsden picked up his brother, Trooper A. E. Ramsden, who had been shot through both legs and was lying about ten yards from the Boer trenches, and carried him about 6oo or 8oo  yards under a heavy fire (putting him down from time to time for a rest) till they met some men who helped to carry him to a place of safety.

Lieutenant (now Captain) Sir John P. Milbanke , Bart., 10th  Hussars.-On the 5th January 1900, during a reconnaissance near Colesberg, Sir John Milbanke, when retiring under fire with a small patrol of the 10th Hussars, notwithstanding the fact that he had just been severely wounded in the  thigh, rode back to the assistance of one of the men whose pony was exhausted, and who was under fire from some Boers who had dismounted. Sir John Milbanke took the man up on his own horse under a most galling fire and brought him  safely back to camp.

Lieutenant Francis Newton Parsons (since deceased), Essex Regiment.-On the morning of the i8th of February 7900, at Paardeberg, on the south bank of the river Modder, Private Ferguson, 1st Battalion Essex Regiment, was wounded and fell in a place devoid of cover. While trying to crawl under cover he was again wounded in the stomach. Lieutenant Parsons at once went to his assistance, dressed his wound under heavy fire, went down twice (still under heavy fire) to the bank of the river to get water for Private Ferguson, and subsequently carried him to a place of safety. This officer was recommended for the Victoria Cross by Lieutenant-General Kelly-Kenny, C.B., on the 3rd of March last. Lieutenant Parsons was killed on the 10th of March in the engagement at Driefontein, on which occasion be again displayed conspicuous gallantry.

Private (now Corporal) A. B. Curtis , 2nd Battalion East Surrey Regiment.-On the 23rd February 1900, Colonel Harris lay all day long in a perfectly open space under close fire of a Boer breastwork. The Boers  fired all day at any man who moved, and Colonel Harris was wounded eight or nine times. Private Curtis, after several attempts, succeeded in reaching the Colonel, bound his wounded arm, and gave him his flask-all under heavy fire.  He then tried to carry him away, but was unable, on which he called for assistance and Private Morton came out at once. Fearing that the men would be killed, Colonel Harris told them to leave him, but they declined, and after  trying to carry the Colonel on their rifles they made a chair with their hands and so carried him out of fire.

Lieutenant E. T. Inkson , Royal Army Medical Corps.-On the 24th February 1q00, Lieutenant Inkson carried Second  Lieutenant Devenish (who was severely wounded and unable to walk) for three or four hundred yards under avery heavy fire to a place of safety. The ground over which Lieutenant Inkson had to move was much exposed, there being no cover available.

Captain Conwyn Mansel-Jones , the West Yorkshire Regiment.-On February 27, 1900, during the assault on Terrace Hill, north of the Tugela, in Natal, the companies of the West Yorkshire Regiment on the  northern slope of the hill met with a severe shell, Vickers-Maxim, and rifle fire, and their advance was for a few moments checked. Captain C. Mansel-Jones, however, by his strong initiative, restored confidence, and, in spite of  his falling very seriously wounded, the men took the whole-ridge without  further check, this officer's self-sacrificing devotion to duty at a critical moment having averted what might have proved a serious check to the who]e assault.

Sergeant H. Engleheart, 10th Hussars.-At dawn on March 13, 1900, the party that had destroyed the railway north of Bloemfontein had to charge through a Boer piquet and get-over four deep spruits in order to make their way back through the Boer lines. At the fourth spruit Sapper Webb's horse failed to get up the bank, and he  was left in a very dangerous position. in face of a very heavy rifle and shell fire, and notwithstanding the great chance of being cut off, Sergeant Engleheart returned to Sapper Webb's assistance. It took some time to get the man  and his horse out of the sluit, -and the position became momentarily more critical owing to the advance of the Beers. He was, however, at last successful, and retiring slowly, to cover Webb's retreat, was able to get him safely  back to the party. Shortly beforethis, Sergeant Engleheart had shown great  gallantry in dashing into the first spruit, which could only be reached in single file and was still full of Boers hesitating whether to fly or fir~ Had they been given time to rally they must have destroyed the small party of  British, as they outnumbered them by four to one.

Major Phipps Hornby, Sergeant Charles Parker, Gunner Isaac Lodge, Driver Horace Harry Glasock, Q Battery, R.H.A.-Four Victoria Crosses were awarded to members of Q Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, for gallantry displayed at Korn Spruit. As every man of the battery had displayed equally conspicuous courage, Lord Roberts decided to deal with the case under Rule '3 of the Warrant of the Order, and allotted four badges-one for officers, one for non-commissioned officers, and two for gunners and drivers. The circumstances in which Major Phipps-Hornby was selected for the honour in the first class mentioned are set forth in the following extract from the London Gazette: "On the occasion of the action at Koorn Spruit on March31, 1900, a British force1 including two batteries of the Royal Horse Artillery, was retiring from Thabancha towards Bloemfontein. The enemy bad formed an  ambush at Koorn Spruit, and, before their presence was discovered by the main body, had captured the greater portion of the baggage column and five out of the six guns of the leading battery. When the alarm was given Q Battery,  Royal Horse Artillery, was within 300 yards of the 5pm it. Major Phipps-Hornby, who commanded it, at once wheeled about and moved off at a gallop under a very heavy fire. One gun upset when a wheel-horse was shot, and had to be  abandoned, together with a waggon, the horses of which were killed. The remainder of the battery reached a position close to some unfinished railway buildings, and came into action 1150 yards from the spruit. remaining in action  until ordered to retire. When the order to retire was received, Major Phipps-Hornby ordered the guns and their limbers to be run back by hand to where the teams of uninjured horses stood behind the unfinished buildings. The few  remaining gunners, assisted by a number of officers and men of a party of mounted infantry, and directed by Major Phipps-Hornby and Captain Humphreys, the only remaining officers of the battery, succeeded in running back four of  the guns under Shelten. One or two of the limbers were similarly withdrawn by hand, but the work was most severe and the distance considerable. In consequence, all concerned were so exhausted that they were unable to drag in the  remaining limbers or the fifth gun. It now became necessary to risk the horses, and volunteers were called for from among the drivers, who readily responded. Several horses were killed, and men wounded, but at length only one gun  and one limber were left exposed. Four separate attempts were made to rescue these, but when no more horses were available the attempt had to be given up, and the gun and limber were abandoned. Meanwhile the other guns hadbeen sent on, one at a time, and, after passing within 700 or 800 yards of the  enemy, in rounding the head of a donga and crossing two spruits, they eventually reached a place of safety, where the battery was reformed. After full consideration of the circumstances of the case, the Field-Marshal  Commanding-in-Chief in South Africa formed the opinion that the conduct of all ranks of Q Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, was conspicuously gallant and daring, but that all were equally brave and devoted in their behaviour. He  therefore decided to treat the case of the battery as one of collective gallantry under Rule 13 of the Victoria Cross Warrant and directed that one officer should be selected for the decoration of the Victoria Cross by the  officers, one non-commissioned officer by the non-commissioned officers, and two gunners or drivers by the gunners and drivers. A difficulty arose with regard to the officer, owing to the fact that there were only two unwounded  officers-Major Fhipps-Hornby and Captain Humphreys-available for the work of saving the guns, and both of these had been conspicuous by their gallantry and by the fearless manner in which they exposed themselves, and each of them  nominated the other for the decoration. It was ultimately decided in favour of Major Phipps-Hornby, as having been tile senior concerned.

Sergeant Charles Parker was chosen by the non-commissioned officers as the one among  them most deserving the distinction.

Gunner Isaac Lodge and Driver Horace Harry Glasock were selected in the like manner by the vote of their comrades.

* Lieutenant F. A. Maxwell, D.S.O., Indian Staff Corps, attached to Robertss Light Horse.-Lieutenant Maxwell was one of three officers not belonging to Q Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, specially mentioned by Lord Roberts as having shown the greatest gallantry and disregard of danger in carrying out the self-imposed duty of saving the guns of that battery during the affair at Koorn Spruit on March 3rd, 1900. This officer went out on five different occasions and assisted to bring in two guns and three limbers, one of which he, Captain Humphreys, and some gunners, dragged in by hand. He also went out with Captain Humphreys and Lieutenant Stirling to try to get the last gun in, and remained there till the attempt was abandoned. During a previous campaign (the Chitral Expedition of 1895) Lieutenant Maxwell displayed gallantry in the removal of the body of Lieutenant-Colonel F. D. Battye, Corps of Guides, under fire, for which, though recommended, he received no reward.

Lieutenant W- H. S. Nickerson, Royal Army Medical Corps, attached to Mounted Infantry.-At Wakkerstroom, on the evening of the 20th April 1900, during the advance of the Infantry to support the mounted troops, Lieutenant Nickerson went, in the most gallant manner, under a heavy rifle and shell fire, to attend a wounded man, dressed his wounds, and remained with him till he had him conveyed to a place of safety.

1 This decoration was the first Victoria Cross conferred by King Edward VII., on March 8, 1901.

Corporal H. Beet, 1st Battalion Derbyshire' Regiment Mounted Infantry. - At Wakkerstroom, on the 22nd April 1900, No.2 Mounted Infantry Company 1st Battalion Derbyshire Regiment, with two squadrons Imperial Yeomanry, had to retire from near a farm, under a. ridge held by Boers. Corporal Burnett, Imperial. Yeomanry, was left on the ground wounded, and Corporal Beet, on seeing him, remained. behind, and placed him under cover, bound up his wounds, and by firing prevented the Boers from coming down to the farm till dark,. when Dr. Wilson, Imperial Yeomanry, came to the wounded man's assistance. The retirement was carried out under a very heavy fire, and Corporal Beet was exposed to fire during the whole afternoon.

Captain Ernest Beckwith Towse , the Gordon Highlanders.-On the 10th December, 1899, at the action of Majesfontein, CaptainTowse was brought to notice by his command-in g officer for his galantry and devotion in assisting  the late Colonel Downman, when mortally wounded, in the retirement, and endevouring, when close up to the front of the firing line, to carry Colonel Downman on his back, but finding this not possible Captain Towse supported him  till joined by Colour-Sergeant Nelson and Lance-Corporal Hodgson. On the 30th of April, 1900, Captain Towse, with 12 men, took up a position on the top of Mount Thaba, far away from support. A force of about I 50 Boers attempted to  seize the same plateau, neither party appearing to see the other until they were but 100 yards apart. Some of the Boersthen got within 40 yards of Captain Towse and his party, and called on him to surrender Heat once caused his men  to open fire, and remained firing himself until severely wounded (both eyes shattered), succeeding in driving off the Boers. The gallantry of this officer in vigorously attacking the enemy (for he not only fired, but charged  forward) saved the situation, notwithstanding the numerical superiority of the Boers.

Corporal F. M'Kay, the Gordon Highlanders.-On the 29th of May 1900, during the action on Crow's Nest Hill, near Johannesburg, Corporal M'Kay repeatedly rushed forward, under a withering fire at short ranges, to attend to wounded comrades, dressing their wounds while he himself was without shelter, and in one instance carrying a wounded man from the open, under a heavy fire, to the shelter of a. boulder.

Corporal F. Kirby, Royal Engineers.-On the morning of June 2, 1900, a party sent to-try to cut the Delagoa Bay Railway were retiring, hotly pressed by very superior numbers. During one of the successive retirements of the rearguard a man, whose horse had been. shot, was seen running after his comrades... He was a long way behind the rest of his troop, and was under a brisk fire. From among the retiring troop, Corporal Kirby turned and rode' back to the man's assistance. Although by the time he reached him they were under a heavy fire at close range, Corporal Kirby managed to get the dismounted man up behind him, and to take him clear off over the next rise held by our rearguard. This is the third occasion on which Corporal Kirby has displayed gallantry in the face of the enemy,

Private C. Ward, 2nd Battalion the King's Own (Yorkshire Light Infantry).-On June 26, 1900, at Lindley, a picket of the Yorkshire Light Infantry was surrounded on three sides by about 500 Boers at close quarters. The two officers were wounded, and all but sir of their men were killed or wounded. Private Ward then volunteered to take a message asking for reinforcements to the signalling station about 159 yards in the rear of the post. His offer was at first refused, owing to the practical certainty of his being shot; but, on his insisting, he was allowed to go. He got across untouched through a storm of shots from each flank, and, having delivered his message, he voluntarily returned from a place of absolute safety and recrossed the fire-swept ground to assure his commanding-officer that the message had been sent. On this occasion he was severely wounded. But for this gallant action the post would certainly have been captured.

Sergeant Arthur Herbert Lindsey Richardson of Lord Strathcona's Corps.--On July 5, at Wolve Spruit, about fifteen miles north of Standerton, a party of Lord Strathcona's Corps, only thirty-eight in number, came into contact and was engaged at close quarters with a force of eighty of the enemy. When the order to retire had been given, Sergeant Richardson rode back under a very heavy crossfire and picked up a trooper whose horse had been shot, and who was wounded in two places, and rode with him out of fire. At the time when this act of gallantry was performed, Sergeant Richardson was within 300 yards of the enemy, and was himself riding a wounded horse.

Captain William Engleson Gordon, the Gordon Highlanders. -On July 11, 1900, during the action near Leehoehoek (or Doornbosch Fontein), near Krugersdorp, a party of men, accompanied by Captains Younger and Allan, having succeeded in dragging an artillery waggon under cover when its horses were unable to do so by reason of the heavy and accurate fire of the enemy, Captain Gordon called for volunteers to go out with him to try to bring in one of the guns. He went out alone to the nearest gun under a heavy fire, and with the greatest coolness fastened a drag-rope to the gun and then beckoned to the men, who immediately doubled out to join him in accordance with his previous instructions. While moving the gun, Captain Younger and three men were hit. Seeing that further attempts would only result in further casualties, Captain Gordon ordered the remainder of the party under cover of the k6pje again, and, having seen the wounded safely away, himself retired. Captain Gordon's conduct, under a particularly heavy and most accurate fire at only 85o yards' range, was most admirable. and his manner of handling his men most masterly; his devotion on every occasion that his battalion has been under fire has been remarkable.

Captain David Reginald Younge; the Gordon Highlanders, in recognition of the conspicuous bravery displayed by him on July Ii, 1900, as described above, would have received the Victoria Cross had he survived his gallant action.

Sergeant T. Lawrence, 17th Lancers.-On the 7th August 1900, when on patrol duty near Essenbosch Farm, Sergeant Lawrence and a Private Hayman were attacked by twelve or fourteen Boers. Private Hayman's horse was shot and the man was thrown, dislocating his shoulder. Sergeant Lawrence at once came to his assistance, extricated him from under the horse, put him on his own horse, and sent him on to the picket. Sergeant Lawrence took the soldier's carbine, and, with his own carbine as well, kept the Boers off until Private Hayman was safely out of range. He then retired for some two miles on foot, followed by the Boers, and keeping them off till assistance arrived.

Corporal H. J. Knight, 1st Battalion Liverpool Regiment, No.i Company, Fourth Division Mounted Infantry-On the 21st August '9001 during the operations near Van Wyk's Vlei, Corporal Knight was posted in some rocks with four men covering the right rear of a detachment of the same company who, under Captain Ewart, were holding the right of the line. The enemy, about fifty strong, attacked Captain Ewart's right and almost surrounded, at short range, Corpor~ Knight's small party. That non-commissioned officer held his ground, directing his party to retire one by one to better cover, where he maintained his position for nearly an hour, covering the withdrawal of Captain Ewart's force, and losing two of his four men. He then retired, bringing with him two wounded men. One of these he left in a place of safety, the other he carried himself for nearly two miles. The party were hotly engaged during the whole time.

Private William Heaton, 1st Battalion the King's (Liverpool Regiment). - On the 23rd August 1900, the company to which Private Heaton belonged, advancing in front of the general line held by the troops, became surrounded by the enemy and was suffering severely. At the request of the officer commanding Private Heaton volunteered to take a message back to explain the position of the company. He was successful, though at the imminent risk of his own life. Had it not been for Private Heaton's courage there can be little doubt that the remainder of the company, which suffered very severely, would have had to surrender.

Lieutenant Guy G.E. Wylly, Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen.-On the 1st of September 1900, near Warm Bad, Lieutenant Wylly was with the advanced scouts of a foraging party. They were passing through a narrow gorge, very rocky and thickly wooded, when the enemy in force suddenly opened fire at short range from hidden cover, wounding six out of the party of eight, including Lieutenant Wylly. That officer, seeing that one of his men was badly wounded in the leg, and that his horse was shot, went back to the man's assistance, made him take his (Lieutenant Wylly's) horse, and opened fire from behind a rock to cover the retreat of the others, at the imminent risk of being cut off himself. Colonel. T. E.  Hickman, D.S.O., considers that the gallant conduct of Lieutenant Wylly saved Corporal Brown from being killed or captured, and that his subsequent action in firing to cover the retreat was ''instrumental in saving others of his  men from death or capture."

Private J. H. Bisbee, Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen. Act of courage for which recommended -On September 1, 1900, Private Bisbee was one of an advanced scouting party passing through a rocky  defile near Warm Bad, Transvaal. The enemy, who were in ambuscade, opened a sudden fire at close range, and six out of the party of eight were hit, including two officers. The horse of one of the wounded officers broke away and  bolted. Private Bisbee gave the officer his stirrup leather to help him out of action; but, finding that the officer was too badly wounded to go on, Private Bisbee dismounted, placed him on his horse, mounted behind him, and  conveyed him out of range. This act was performed under a very hot fire and in a very exposed place.

Major E. D. Brown, 14th Hussars.-On the 13th October 1900, at Geluk, when the enemy were within four hundred yards, and bringing a heavy fire to bear, Major Brown, seeing that Sergeant Hersey's horse was shot, stopped behind the last squadron as it was retiring, and helped Sergeant Hersey to mount behind him, carrying him for about three-quarters of a mile to a place of safety. He did this under a heavy fire. Major Brown afterwards enabled Lieutenant Browne, 14th Hussars, to mount, by holding his horse, which was very restive under the heavy fire. Lieutenant Browne could not otherwise have mounted. Subsequently Major Brown carried Lance-Corporal Trumpeter Leigh out of action.

Lieutenant A. C. Doxat, 3rd Battalion Imperial Yeomanry. - On the 20th October 1900, near Zeerust, Lieutenant Doxat proceeded with a party of Mounted Infantry to reconnoitre a position held by one hundred Boers on a ridge of kopjes. When within three hundred yards of the position the enemy opened a heavy fire on Lieutenant Doxat's party, which then retired, leaving one of their number who had lost his horse. Lieutenant Doxat, seeing the dangerous position in which the man was placed, galloped back under a very heavy fire and brought him on his horse to a place of safety.

* Lieutenant H. Z. C. Cockburn Royal Canadian Dragoons. - During the action at Komati River on the 7th of November, Lieu-tenant Cockburn, with a handful of men, at a most critical moment held off the Boers to allow the guns to get away; to do so he Lad to sacrifice himself and his party, all of whom were killed, wounded, or taken prisoners, he himself being slightly wounded.

* Lieutenant R. I:. W. Turner, Royal Canadian Dragoons.-Later in the day, when the Boers again seriously threatened to capture the guns, Lieutenant Turner, though twice previously wounded, dismounted and deployed his men  at close quarters and drove off the Boers, thus saving the guns.

* Sergeant E. Holland, Royal Canadian Dragoons. - Sergeant Holland did splendid work with his Colt gun, and kept the Boers off the two twelve-pounders by its fire at close range. When he saw the enemy were too near for him to escape with the carriage, as the horse was blown, he calmly lifted the gun off and galloped away with it under his arm.

Sergeant Farmer, Cameron Highlanders.-During the attack on General Clements' camp at Nooitgedacht on December 13, 1900, Lieutenant Sandilands, Cameron Highlanders, with fifteen men, went to the assistance of a picquet which was heavily engaged, most of the men having been killed or wounded. The enemy, who were hidden by trees, opened fire on the party at a range of about twenty yards, killing two and wounding five, including Lieutenant Sandilands. Sergeant Farmer at once went to the officer, who was perfectly helpless, and carried him away under a very heavy and close fire to a place of comparative safety, after which he returned to the firing line, and was eventually taken prisoner.

Captain H. N. Schofield , Royal Field Artillery - At Colenso, on December 15, 1899, when the detachments serving the guns of the 14th and 66th Batteries Royal Field Artillery had all been killed, wounded, or driven from  them by infantry fire at close range, Captain Schofield went out when the first attempt was made to extricate the guns, and assisted in withdrawing the two that were saved.

Private C. Ravenhill , 2nd Battalion Royal Scots  Fusiliers.-At Colenso, on December 15, 1899, Private Ravenhill went several times, under a heavy fire, from his sheltered position as one of the escort to the guns, to assist the officers and drivers who were trying to with­draw  the guns of the 14th and 66th Batteries Royal Field Artillery, when the detachments serving them had all been killed, wounded, or driven from them by infantry fire at close range, and helped to limber up one of the guns that were  saved.

Lieutenant (now Captain and Brevet­ Major) J. E. I. Masterson , 1st Battalion Devonshire Regiment. During the action at Wagon Hill on January 6, 1900, Lieutenant Masterson commanded, with the greatest gallantry and  dash, one of the three companies of his regiment which charged a ridge held by the enemy and captured their position. The companies were then exposed to a most heavy and galling fire from the right and left front. Lieutenant  Masterson undertook to give a message to the Imperial Light Horse, who were holding a ridge some hundred yards behind, to fire to the left front and endeavour to check the enemy's fire. In taking this message he crossed an open  space of a hundred yards which was swept by a most heavy cross fire, and though badly wounded in both thighs managed to crawl in and deliver his message before falling exhausted into the Imperial Light Horse trench. His unselfish  heroism was undoubtedly the means of saving several lives.

Privates R. Scott and J. Pitts , 1st Battalion Manchester Regiment.-During the attack on Caesar's Camp, in Natal, on January 6, 1900, these two men occupied a  sangar, on the left of which all our men had been shot down and their positions occupied by Beers, and held their post for fifteen hours without food or water, all the time under an extremely heavy fire, keeping up their fire and a  smart look-out, though the Boers occupied some sangars on their immediate left rear. Private Scott was wounded.

Sergeant W. Firth , 1st Battalion West Riding Regiment.-During the action at Plew­man's Farm, near Arundel,  Cape Colony, on February 24, 1900, Lance-Corporal Blackman, having been wounded and lying exposed to a hot fire at a range of from four to five hundred yards, Sergeant Firth picked him up and carried him to cover. Later in the day,  when. the enemy had advanced to within a short distance of the firing line, Second Lieutenant Wilson being dangerously' wounded and in a. most exposed position, Sergeant Firth carried him over the crest of the ridge, which  was-being held by the troops, to shelter, and was himself shot through the nose and eye whiledoing so.

Corporal J. J. Clements , Rimington's Guides.-On February 24, 1900, near Strijden­burg, when dangeron4y wounded through  the lungs and called on to surrender, Corporal Clements threw himself into the midst of a party of five Beers, shooting three of them with his revolver, and thereby causing the-whole party to surrender to himself and two unwounded  men of Rimington's Guides.

Captain N R. House , New South Wales. Medical Staff Corps. During the action at. Vredefort on July 24, 1900, Captain House went out under a heavy cross fire and picked up a wounded man and  carried him to a place of' shelter.

Sergeant H. Hampton , 2nd Battalion Liverpool Regiment.-On August 21, 1900, at Van Wyk's Vlei, Sergeant Hampton, who was-in command of a small party of Mounted In­fantry, held an  important position for some­time against heavy odds, and when compelled to retire saw all his men into safety, and then, though he had himself been wounded in the-head, supported Lance Corporal Walsh, who-was unable to walk, until  the latter was again hit and apparently killed, Sergeant Hampton himself being again wounded a short time after.

Private E. Durrant , 2nd Battalion Rifle ­Brigade, At Bergeadal, on August 27, 1900, Acting-Corporal Weflar  having been wounded, and being somewhat dazed, got up from his prone position in the firing line, exposing himself still more to the enemy's fire, and com­menced to run towards them. Private Durrant rose, and pulling him down  endeavoured to keep him quiet, but finding this impossible he took him up and carried him back for 200 yards under a heavy fire to shelter, returning immediately to his place in the line.

Private C. Kennedy , 2nd Battalion  High­land Light Infantry. - At Dewetsdorp, on November 22, 1900, Private Kennedy carried a comrade, who was dangerously wounded and bleeding to death, from Gibraltar Hill to the hospital, a distance of three-quarters of a mile  under a very hot fire. On the following day, volunteers having been called for to take a message to the commandant across a space over which it was almost certain death to ven­ture, Private Kennedy at once stepped forward. He did  not, however, succeed in delivering the message, as he was severely wounded before he had gone twenty yards.

Farrier-Major W. J. Hardham , 4th New Zealand Contingent. On January 2S, 1901, near Naauwpoort, this  non-commissioned officer was with a section which was extended and hotly engaged with a party of about twenty Boers. Just before the force commenced to retire Trooper M'Crae was wounded and his horse killed. Farrier-Major Hardham  at once went under a heavy fire to his assistance, dismounted and placed him on his own horse, and ran alongside until he had guided him to a place of safety.

Sergeant W. B. Traynor , 2nd Battalion the Prince of Wales's  Own (West Yorkshire Regi­ment).-During the night attack on Bothwell Camp on February 6, 1901, Sergeant Traynor jumped out of a trench and ran out under an extremely heavy fire to the assistance of a wounded . While running out he  was severely wounded, and being unable to carry the man by himself he called for assistance. Lance-Corporal Lintott at once came to him, and between them they carried the wounded soldier into shelter. After this, although severely  wounded, Sergeant Traynor remained in command of his section, and was most cheer­ful, encouraging his men till the attack failed.

Lieutenant F. B. Dugdale , 5th Lancers. - On March 3,1901, Lieutenant Dugdale, who was in  command of a small outpost near Derby, having been ordered to retire, his patrol came under a heavy fire at a range of about two hundred and fifty yards, and a sergeant, two men, and a horse were hit. Lieutenant Dug-dale dismounted  and placed one of the wounded men on his own horse; he then caught another horse, galloped up to a wounded man and took him up behind him, and brought both men safely out of action.

Lieutenant F. W. Bell , West Australian  Mounted Infantry.- At Brakpan, on May i6, 1901, when retiring through a heavy fire after holding the right flank, Lieutenant Bell noticed a man dismounted and returned and took him up behind him. The horse, not being equal to the  weight, fell with them. Lieutenant Bell then remained behind and covered the man's retirement till he was out of danger.

Sergeant James Rogers , South African Constabulary.-On the 15th June 1901, during a skirmish near  Thabanchu, a party of the rearguard of Captain Sitwell's column, con­sisting of Lieutenant F. Dickinson, Sergeant James Rogers, and six men of the South African Constabulary, was suddenly attacked by about sixty Boers. Lieutenant  Dickinson's horse having been shot, that officer was com­pelled to follow his men on foot. Sergeant Rogers seeing this, rode back, firing as he did so, took Lieutenant Dickinson up behind him,. and carried him for half a mile on  his horse. The sergeant then returned to within four hundred yards of the enemy and carried away, one after the other, two men who had lost their horses, after which he caught the horses. of two other men, and helped the men to  mount. All this was done under a very heavy rifle fire. The Boers were near enough to Sergeant Rogers to call on him to surrender, his only answer was to continue firing.

Lieutenant W. J. English , 2nd Scottish Horse.  -This officer with five men was holding the right of a position at Vlakfontein on July 3, i9or, during an attack by the Beers. Two of his men were killed and two wounded, but the position was still held largely owing to Lieutenant  English's personal pluck. When the ammunition ran short he went over to the next party and obtained more to do this he had to cross some fifteen yards of open ground under a heavy fire at a range of from twenty to thirty yards.

Private IL G. Crandon , 18th Hussars.-On July 4, 1901, at Springbok Laagte, Pri­vates Berry and Crandon were scouting to-wards a kopje when the Boers suddenly opened fire on them at a range of one hundred yards. Private  Berry's horse fell and became disabled, and he was himself shot in the right hand and left shoulder Private Crandon at once rode back under a heavy fire to his assistance, gave up his horse to the wounded man to enable him to reach  shelter, and followed him on foot having to run for one thousand one hundred yards, all the time under fire.

Sergeant-Major Alexander Young, Cape­ Police.-Towards the close of the action at Ruiter's Kraal, on the 13th of August 1901,. Sergeant-Major Young, with a handful of men, rushed some kopjes which were being held by Commandant Erasmus and about twenty Beers.. On reaching these kopjes the enemy were seen galloping back to another kopje held by the Beers. Sergeant-Major Young then galloped on some fifty yards ahead of his party, and closing with the enemy shot one of them and captured Commandant Erasmus, the latter firing at him three times at point blank range before being taken prisoner.

Lieutenant L. A. E. Price Davies, D. S.O. King's Royal Rifle Corps.-At Blood River Poort, on September 17, 1901, when the Beers had overwhelmed the right of the British column, and some four hundred of them were-galloping round the flank and rear of the guns, riding up to the drivers (who were trying to get the guns away) and calling on them to surrender, Lieutenant Price Davies, hearing an order to fire on the charging Boers, at once drew his revolver and dashed in among them, firing at them in a most gallant and desperate attempt to rescue the guns. He was imme­diately shot and knocked off his horse, but was not mortally wounded, although he had ridden to what seemed to be almost certain death without a moment's hesitation.

Driver F. G. Bradley , 69th Battery Royal Field Artillery.-During the action at Itala, Zululand, on the 26th September 1901, Major Chapman called for volunteers to carry ammu­nition up the hill. To do this a space of about  one hundred and fifty yards swept by a heavy cross fire had to be crossed. Driver Lancashire and Gunner Bull at once came forward and started, but half-way across Driver Lancashire fell wounded. Driver Bradley and Gunner Rabb  without a moment's hesitation ran out and caught Driver Lancashire up, and Gunner Rabb carried him under cover, the ground being swept by bullets the whole time. Driver Bradley then, with the aid of Gunner Boddy, succeeded in  getting the ammunition up the hill.

Private W. Bees , 1st Battalion Derbyshire Regiment. - Private Bees was one of the Maxim-gun detachment which at Moedwil on the 30th September 1901 had six men hit out of nine. Hearing  his wounded comrades ask­ing for water he went forward,. under a heavy fire, to a spruit held by Boers about five hundred yards ahead of the gun, and brought back a kettle full of water In going and returning he had to pass within  one hundred yards of some rocks also held by Boers, and the kettle which he was carrying was hit by several bullets.

Lieutenant L. C. Maygar , 5th Victorian Mounted Rifles.-At Geelhoutboorn, on the 23rd November 1901,  Lieutenant Maygar galloped out and ordered the men of a de­tached post, which was being outflanked, to retire. The horse of one of them being shot under him, when the enemy were within two hundred yards, Lieutenant Maygar  dismounted and lifted him on to his own horse, which bolted into boggy ground, causing both of them to dismount. On extricating the horse, and finding that it could not carry both, Lieu­tenant Maygar again put the man on its back  and told him to gallop for cover at once, he himself proceeding on foot. All this took place under a very heavy fire.

Surgeon-Captain T. J. Crean , 1st Imperial Light Horse. -During the action with De Wet at Tygerskloof,  on the i8th December 1901, this officer continued to attend to the wounded in the firing line, under a heavy fire at only one hundred and fifty yards' range, after he had himself been wounded, and only desisted when he was hit a  second time, and, as it was at first thought mortally wounded.

Surgeon - Captain A. Martin - Leake , South African Constabulary. - During the action at Vlakfontein, on the 8th of February 1902, Surgeon-Captain Martin-Leake  went up to a wounded man and attended to him under a heavy fire from about forty Boers at a hundred yards' range. He then went to the assistance of a wounded officer, and while trying to place him in a comfortable position was shot  three times, but would not give in till he rolled over thoroughly exhausted. All the eight men at this point were wounded, and while they were lying on the veldt Surgeon-Captain Martin ­Leake refused water till every one else had  been served.